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Recent Articles

Why are biosimilars much more complex than generics?

Eduardo Pagani ORCID logo

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2019ED4836

The regulatory demands for registering a generic medicine are physical-chemical tests and one comparative oral bioavailability clinical trial (bioequivalence).() This takes about 2 years, costs between USD$1 million and 2 million and enables claims for all indications accepted for the original drug. Demands for a biosimilar include many expensive and time-consuming comparative tests, and efficacy clinical trials for each indication. This takes from 5 to 9 years and costs over USD$100 million.() The concept of generic medicine was developed for […]

The role of magnetic resonance imaging in Ménière disease: the current state of endolymphatic hydrops evaluation

Rafael Maffei Loureiro ORCID logo , Daniel Vaccaro Sumi ORCID logo , Marcelo Delboni Lemos ORCID logo , Hugo Luis de Vasconcelos Chambi Tames ORCID logo , Regina Lucia Elia Gomes ORCID logo , Mauro Miguel Daniel ORCID logo , [...]

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2019MD4743

ABSTRACT Technical advances in magnetic resonance imaging have allowed to accurately detect and grade endolymphatic space distension in Ménière disease; this was only possible in post-mortem histological studies until a few years ago. Magnetic resonance imaging rules out other causes of vertigo and hearing loss, and is able to evaluate the cochlear and vestibular compartments of the endolymphatic space using a dedicated protocol.

Immunoinflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus

Bárbara Festa Gomes ORCID logo , Camila de Melo Accardo ORCID logo

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2019RB4596

ABSTRACT Characterized as a metabolic syndrome with multiple consequences for the lives of patients, diabetes mellitus is also classified as a chronic non-communicable disease of great scope in the world. It is a complex disease, with different points of view, including the relation between inflammatory process, obesity and insulin resistance due to the performance of the various immunoinflammatory mediators – called adipokines – on glycemic homeostasis. Recent studies have precisely addressed this aspect for the development of drugs that assist […]

Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: a rare case

Diego Filipe Bezerra Silva ORCID logo , Hellen Bandeira de Pontes Santos ORCID logo , Jorge Esquiche León ORCID logo , Daliana Queiroga de Castro Gomes ORCID logo , Pollianna Muniz Alves ORCID logo , Cassiano Francisco Weege Nonaka ORCID logo

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2019RC4610

ABSTRACT Spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. This paper reports the case of a spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, in a 64-year-old male patient, and presents a review of the etiopathogenesis, clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features and treatment of the malignancy. The patient presented for evaluation of a painful swelling on his tongue. Extraoral examination revealed palpable submandibular and superior cervical lymph nodes. Based on the presumptive diagnoses […]

Kaposi sarcoma of the penis in an HIV-negative patient

José Francisco Aguilar Guevara ORCID logo , Seila Lacarra Fernández ORCID logo , Oliver Rojas Claros ORCID logo , Pedro Giral Villalta ORCID logo , José Luis Cebrián Lostal ORCID logo , Miguel Angel Resano Abarzuza ORCID logo

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2019RC4504

ABSTRACT Kaposi sarcoma is an angioproliferative disorder that ranges from a single indolent skin lesion to respiratory and gastrointestinal/visceral involvement. Kaposi sarcoma is rare in non-immunosuppressed patients. Nineteen cases of penile Kaposi sarcoma in HIV-negative patients were reported in 2012. We present the case report of a 48-year-old male patient with no previous medical history, who came to our urology clinic presenting a purple-color papule on the penis glans. Lab tests revealed negative serology for HIV, but tissue PCR was […]

Recent advances in layered double hydroxides applied to photoprotection

Tamires Andrade da Silva ORCID logo , Tamares Andrade da Silva ORCID logo , Ticiano Gomes do Nascimento ORCID logo , Rebeca Evahides Yatsuzuka ORCID logo , Luciano Aparecido Meireles Grillo ORCID logo , Camila Braga Dornelas ORCID logo

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2019RW4456

ABSTRACT Layered double hydroxides have received more attention from researchers due to their range of applications, ease of synthesis and low cost of production. With broader knowledge about solar radiation effects on the body, the use of sunscreens has become even more important. The ability of some nanostructures, such as layered double hydroxides, to act as matrices has made it possible to obtain improvements in photoprotective formulations, with solutions to problems caused by radiation and sunscreens. This review article brings […]

Near-infrared spectroscopy parameters in patients undergoing continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration

Renato Carneiro de Freitas Chaves ORCID logo , Philipe Franco do Amaral Tafner ORCID logo , Felipe Ko Chen ORCID logo , Letícia Bagatini Meneghini ORCID logo , Thiago Domingos Corrêa ORCID logo , Roberto Rabello Filho ORCID logo , [...]

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2019AO4439

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the impacts of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration on the microcirculation in patients with acute kidney injury. Methods A prospective observational pilot study conducted in a 40-bed, open clinical-surgical intensive care unit of a private tertiary care hospital located in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Microcirculation was assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy by means of a 15mm probe placed over the thenar eminence. Vascular occlusion test was performed on the forearm to be submitted to near-infrared spectroscopy […]

Risk factors associated with in-hospital falls reported to the Patient Safety Commitee of a teaching hospital

Adriane Kênia Moreira Silva ORCID logo , Dayane Carlos Mota da Costa ORCID logo , Adriano Max Moreira Reis ORCID logo

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2019AO4432

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the use of fall-risk-increasing drugs among patients with falls reported to the Patient Safety Office of a hospital, and to identify the factors associated with high risk for fall. Methods A cross-sectional study, carried out in a teaching hospital. The study population was the universe of fall reports received by the Patient Safety Office. The dependent variable was a high risk for falls. The Medication Fall Risk Score was used to measure fall risk. Descriptive, univariate […]

Effective vancomycin concentrations in children: a cross-sectional study

Geisa Cristina da Silva Alves ORCID logo , Farah Maria Drumond Chequer ORCID logo , Cristina Sanches ORCID logo

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2019AO4396

ABSTRACT Objective Analyze the microbiological effectiveness, based on the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics correlation of vancomycin in pediatric patients, and to propose dose adjustment. Methods This is an observational, cross-sectional study, conducted in a pediatric hospital, over a 1-year period (2016 to 2017). Children of both sexes, aged 2 to 12 years, were included in the study; burn children, and children in renal replacement therapy were excluded. For the pharmacokinetic analysis, two samples of 2mL of whole blood were collected, respecting the 2-hour […]