35 results

Immunosenescence: participation of T lymphocytes and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in aging-related immune response changes

Amanda Soares Alves ORCID logo , Valquiria Bueno ORCID logo

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2019RB4733

ABSTRACT Healthy aging is partly related to appropriate function of the immune system. As already reported, some changes in this system are observed, including reduced number and repertoire of T cells due to thymic involution, accumulation of memory T cells by chronic infections, homeostatic proliferation compensating for the number of naïve T cells, decreased proliferation of T cells against a stimulus, telomere shortening, replicative senescence of the T cells, and inflammaging, besides the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. The purpose […]

Immunoinflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus

Bárbara Festa Gomes ORCID logo , Camila de Melo Accardo ORCID logo

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2019RB4596

ABSTRACT Characterized as a metabolic syndrome with multiple consequences for the lives of patients, diabetes mellitus is also classified as a chronic non-communicable disease of great scope in the world. It is a complex disease, with different points of view, including the relation between inflammatory process, obesity and insulin resistance due to the performance of the various immunoinflammatory mediators – called adipokines – on glycemic homeostasis. Recent studies have precisely addressed this aspect for the development of drugs that assist […]

Nanotechnology and multipotent adult progenitor cells in Reparative Medicine: therapeutic perspectives

Angela Mazzeo ORCID logo , Enrico Jardim Clemente Santos ORCID logo

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2018RB4587

ABSTRACT The biology of stem cells is one of the most dynamic and promising fields of the biological sciences, since it is the basis for the development of organisms. Its biological complexity demands efforts from several lines of research aimed mainly at its therapeutic use. Nanotechnology has been emerging as a new field of study, which shows great potential in the treatment of various diseases. This new area of health has been called “Nanomedicine” or “Bionanotechnology”, which can be applied […]

Cardiac tissue engineering: current state-of-the-art materials, cells and tissue formation

Isabella Caroline Pereira Rodrigues ORCID logo , Andreas Kaasi ORCID logo , Rubens Maciel Filho ORCID logo , André Luiz Jardini ORCID logo , Laís Pellizzer Gabriel ORCID logo

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082018RB4538

ABSTRACT Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death worldwide. The heart has limited capacity of regeneration, therefore, transplantation is the only solution in some cases despite presenting many disadvantages. Tissue engineering has been considered the ideal strategy for regenerative medicine in cardiology. It is an interdisciplinary field combining many techniques that aim to maintain, regenerate or replace a tissue or organ. The main approach of cardiac tissue engineering is to create cardiac grafts, either whole heart substitutes or tissues […]

Regulation of adiposity by mTORC1

Juliana Magdalon, William Tadeu Festuccia

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082017RB4106

ABSTRACT Obesity is characterized by an excessive increase in the adipose tissue mass, and is associated with higher incidence of several chronic metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Therefore, its increasing prevalence is a public health concern, and it is important to better understand its etiology to develop new therapeutic strategies. Evidence accumulated over the years indicates that obesity is associated with a marked activation in adipose tissue of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a signaling […]

Gene therapy: advances, challenges and perspectives

Giulliana Augusta Rangel Gonçalves, Raquel de Melo Alves Paiva

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082017RB4024

ABSTRACT The ability to make site-specific modifications to the human genome has been an objective in medicine since the recognition of the gene as the basic unit of heredity. Thus, gene therapy is understood as the ability of genetic improvement through the correction of altered (mutated) genes or site-specific modifications that target therapeutic treatment. This therapy became possible through the advances of genetics and bioengineering that enabled manipulating vectors for delivery of extrachromosomal material to target cells. One of the […]

Autism spectrum disorders: an updated guide for genetic counseling

Karina Griesi-Oliveira, Andréa Laurato Sertié

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082017RB4020

ABSTRACT Autism spectrum disorder is a complex and genetically heterogeneous disorder, which has hampered the identification of the etiological factors in each patient and, consequently, the genetic counseling for families at risk. However, in the last decades, the remarkable advances in the knowledge of genetic aspects of autism based on genetic and molecular research, as well as the development of new molecular diagnostic tools, have substantially changed this scenario. Nowadays, it is estimated that using the currently available molecular tests, […]

Application of botulinum toxin to treat sialorrhea in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a literature review

Ademar Francisco de Oliveira Filho, Gêssyca Adryene de Menezes Silva, Débora Milenna Xavier Almeida

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082016RB3594

ABSTRACTAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons, which are the central nervous system cells that control voluntary muscle movements. The excessive salivation (sialorrhea) is present in approximately 50% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases. Thus, some alternative therapeutic methods are sought, such as anticholinergic drugs and surgery. Recently the use of botulinum toxin applied at a midpoint of the salivary glands, often guided by ultrasound, have demonstrated positive results. The objective […]

Group A rotavirus gastroenteritis: post-vaccine era, genotypes and zoonotic transmission

Adriana Luchs, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082016RB3582

ABSTRACTThis article provides a review of immunity, diagnosis, and clinical aspects of rotavirus disease. It also informs about the changes in epidemiology of diarrheal disease and genetic diversity of circulating group A rotavirus strains following the introduction of vaccines. Group A rotavirus is the major pathogen causing gastroenteritis in animals. Its segmented RNA genome can lead to the emergence of new or unusual strains in human populations via interspecies transmission and/or reassortment events.

Advances in the use of nanocarriers for cancer diagnosis and treatment

Débora Braga Vieira, Lionel Fernel Gamarra

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082016RB3475

ABSTRACTThe use of nanocarriers as drug delivery systems for therapeutic or imaging agents can improve the pharmacological properties of commonly used compounds in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Advances in the surface engineering of nanoparticles to accommodate targeting ligands turned nanocarriers attractive candidates for future work involving targeted drug delivery. Although not targeted, several nanocarriers have been approved for clinical use and they are currently used to treat and/or diagnosis various types of cancers. Furthermore, there are several formulations, which are […]

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