Incidence of variant hemoglobins in newborns attended by a public health laboratory
To evaluate the incidence of variant hemoglobins in different health regions.
A descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach based on secondary data in the internal records of the neonatal screening service – Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado do Piauí (PI, Brazil). The variables related to sex, ethnicity and positive diagnosis for variant hemoglobins were analyzed, with further population distribution of hemoglobinopathies among the macroregions of the state.
A total of 69,180 samples of newborns were analyzed, and 3,747 were diagnosed as hemoglobinopathies, from February 1st, 2014 and December 31st, 2015. Sickle cell trait was the most frequent (4.1%), followed by hemoglobinopathy C in 0.9%; homozygous hemoglobin S cases 0.1% stood out and there were no cases of hemoglobinopathy D in the state. It is also worth noting that the highest frequencies of hemoglobin alterations in Piauí were in males (49.8%) and of parda skin color (38.5%). The region of Piauí presenting the highest incidence of heteroygous variant hemoglobins was Tabuleiros do Alto Parnaíba and Vale do Sambito, due to importance of the region’s population Entre Rios.
Neonatal screening programs are important for screening, orientations regarding health actions and monitoring of families with hemoglobinopathies, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates.