einstein (São Paulo). 13/May/2019;17(3):eAO4412.

Introduction of complementary foods in infants

Lilian Cordeiro de Queirós Moreira ORCID logo , Elizabeth Brauninger e Oliveira ORCID logo , Lucia Hitomi Kamata Lopes ORCID logo , Mariana Ercole Bauleo ORCID logo , Flavio Sarno ORCID logo

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2019AO4412



To analyze frequency, age and time trend of complementary feeding introduction in infants.


Retrospective study of infants’ data evaluated at nutrition sector of Programa de Atenção aos Bebês of Programa Einstein na Comunidade de Paraisópolis from 2012 to 2015. Survival analyzes were performed, and the outcome considered was the time until the introduction of each specific food.


Participants were 700 infants, with 5.5 months of median age. Water was the most consumed supplement (80.0%), followed by infant formula (64.1%) and juice (51.1%). Regarding the beginning of complementary feeding, water, infant formula and tea were the first to be introduced, with a median age of 3 months. It is noteworthy that almost one-fifth of the infants had already received processed foods. Water introduction proportions showed a significant tendency to increase over the years, and among infants at 6 months of age, varied from 72.8%, in 2012, to 91.1%, in 2015. The introduction of processed food category items presented a significant trend of change, showing, however, a reduction from 30.8%, in 2012, to 15.6%, in 2015, in this same age group. Among the processed foods, flour based thickeners (36.3%) and biscuits (26.3%) presented the highest proportions of consume.


Water and infant formula were the most widely consumed and early introduced foods. Among the studied years, water introduction presented a significant tendency to increase and processed foods category to reduce consumption.

Introduction of complementary foods in infants