Oral colonization by Candida species in HIV-positive patients: association and antifungal susceptibility study
To investigate antifungal susceptibility and factors associated with oral colonization by Candida species in HIV-positive patients.
A prospective study based on convenience sampling of subjects recruited from a pool of confirmed HIV-positive individuals seen at a specialty outpatient service in Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil). Oral swabs were collected from 197 patients. Candida species were identified by standard microbiological techniques (phenotypic and molecular methods). Antifungal susceptibility was investigated using the broth microdilution method.
A total of 101 (51.3%) patients were Candida spp carriers. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (80%). Patients aged 45 to 59 years (Prevalence ratios: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.57-6.31) and 60 years or older (Prevalence ratios: 4.43; 95%CI: 1.57-34.18) were at higher risk of oral colonization by Candida species. Resistance to fluconazole and ketoconazole, or to itraconazole, corresponded to 1% and 4%, respectively.
Age (45 years or older) was the only factor associated with oral colonization by Candida . Low rates of antifungal resistance to azoles were detected in yeast isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients. Findings of this study may contribute to proper therapeutic selection for oral candidiasis in HIV-positive patients.