einstein (São Paulo). 30/Oct/2018;16(4):eAO4251.

Low birth weight and its associated factors

Andreia Ielpo Magalhães Moreira ORCID logo , Paulo Roberto Moreira de Sousa ORCID logo , Flavio Sarno ORCID logo

DOI: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2018AO4251



To calculate the frequency and evaluate the factors associated with low birth weight.


A retrospective study, with data from pregnant women who participated in the Programa de Atenção às Gestantes do Programa Einstein na Comunidade de Paraisópolis, between 2011 and 2014, and who returned for the postpartum evaluation of their newborns. Variables related to the pregnant woman, pregnancy, and newborn were evaluated. The outcome variable was low birth weight, defined as <2.5kg. The associations between the independent variables and low birth weight were assessed by χ2 and Mann-Whitney tests. Logistic regression models analyzed the combined effects of the independent variables on low birth weight.


Data of 794 pregnant women and their newborns (52.1% males) were analyzed. The age of pregnant women varied from 13 to 44 years (median of 24 years), and the majority reported being married or living in cohabitation (74.7%), and having between 9 to 11 years of schooling (53.4%). The proportion of low birth weight was 7.6% (newborn mean weight of 3.2kg) and, in multivariate analysis, presence of twinning, age group of the pregnant women (showing protection for low birth weight between ages ≥18 years and <35 years), and cesarean section were associated with low birth weight.


The proportion of low birth weight was 7.6% and twining, age of the pregnant woman, and cesarean delivery were associated with the occurrence of low birth weight.

Low birth weight and its associated factors