einstein (São Paulo). 01/jan/2017;15(1):7-9.

Precision Medicine

João Renato Rebello Pinho

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082017ED4016

Precision Medicine, Personalized Medicine, and Individualized Medicine (and even older terms, such as pharmacogenomics or pharmacogenetics) have often been used over the last years to mean the use of biological markers (obtained by ordering a few supplementary tests by physicians) that may indicate particular genetic characteristics of the different affected individuals and of the various diseases that affect them (such as genetic, oncologic, or infectious diseases). These biomarkers may be used to indicate the most adequate treatment and follow-up for these disorders, which can be different for each individual. The term ‘Precision Medicine’ is currently preferred, since besides Genetics, it also involves lifestyle and environmental characteristics

It is implicit in this definition that the methods used for the diagnosis necessarily went through a significant progression, allowing the definition of specific characteristics of these individuals and their diseases, which could not have been imagined few years ago. In parallel, therapeutic advances have also been relevant over the last decades, when knowledge of Genetic Engineering enabled us to obtain, on a large scale, different compounds used in ever more specific ways in several conditions, with variable effects according to the genetic profile.

Precision Medicine