58 results

Stereotactic radiosurgery for spinal metastases: a literature review

Andrei Fernandes Joaquim, Enrico Ghizoni, Helder Tedeschi, Eduardo Baldon Pereira, Leonardo Abdala Giacomini

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082013000200020

Objective:The spine is the most common location for bone metastases. Since cure is not possible, local control and relief of symptoms is the basis for treatment, which is grounded on the use of conventional radiotherapy. Recently, spinal radiosurgery has been proposed for the local control of spinal metastases, whether as primary or salvage treatment. Consequently, we carried out a literature review in order to analyze the indications, efficacy, and safety of radiosurgery in the treatment of spinal metastases.METHODS:We havereviewed the […]

Platelet-rich plasma for long bone healing

Mário Lenza, Silvia de Barros Ferraz, Dan Carai Maia Viola, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos Santos, Miguel Cendoroglo Neto, Mario Ferretti

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082013000100023

Objective:To evaluate effectiveness of the use of platelet-rich plasma as coadjuvant for union of long bones.METHODS:The search strategy included the Cochrane Library (via Central) and MEDLINE (via PubMed). There were no limits as to language or publication media. The latest search strategy was conducted in December 2011. It included randomized clinical trials that evaluated the use of platelet-rich plasma as coadjuvant medication to accelerate union of long bones (acute fractures, pseudoarthrosis and bone defects). The outcomes of interest for this […]

Glioblastoma: approach to treat elderly patients

Luciola de Barros Pontes, Theodora Karnakis, Suzana Maria Fleury Malheiros, Eduardo Weltman, Reynaldo André Brandt, Rafael Aliosha Kaliks Guendelmann

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082012000400021

Treating elderly cancer patients is a challenge for oncologists, especially considering the several therapeutic modalities in glioblastoma. Extensive tumor resection offers the best chance of local control. Adequate radiotherapy should always be given to elderly patients if they have undergone gross total resection and have maintained a good performance status. Rather than being ruled out, chemotherapy should be considered, and temozolomide is the chosen drug. A comprehensive geriatric assessment is a valuable tool to help guiding treatment decisions in elderly […]

Nonbiological maternal risk factor for low birth weight on Latin America: a systematic review of literature with meta-analysis

Telma Regina Sanches Ranzani da Silva

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082012000300023

Objective:To identify non-biological maternal risk factors to low birth weight in Latin America.METHODS:Systematic review of literature through meta-analysis. The tool for methodological evaluation was the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement. Studies in non-pathological maternal risk factors to low-birth weight and those evaluated by a Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement method under C grade were excluded.RESULTS:From seven studies, five pointed out the influence of maternal age under 20. In four studies maternal age […]

Transcranial sonography in Parkinson’s disease

Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, José Luiz Pedroso, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini, Luiz Augusto Franco de Andrade, Egberto Reis Barbosa, [...]

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082012000200022

Transcranial sonography has become a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes. This is a non-invasive, low cost procedure. The main finding on transcranial sonography in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease is an increased echogenicity of the mesencephalic substantia nigra region. This hyperechogenicity is present in more than 90% of cases, and reflects a dysfunction in the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. This study discussed how the hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra may facilitate the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes.

Recent changes in Clostridium difficile infection

Moacyr Silva Júnior

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082012000100023

Clostridium difficile is the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Diarrhea associated with C. difficile has increased incidence, morbidity, and mortality in the last few years. The major related risk factors include use of antibiotics, elderly patients and prolonged hospital stay. Many patients receive combinations of antibiotics or multiple antibiotics, which represents the main risk to develop diarrhea associated to C. difficile or its recurrence. Therefore, interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing, as well as compliance with infection control measures can reduce […]

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a literature review

Lelia Gonçalves Rocha Martin, Maria Denise Pessoa Silva

DOI: 10.1590/s1679-45082011rw2220

ABSTRACTPeripheral neuropathy is a common side effect in patients undergoing cancer treatment with chemotherapy. This condition can affect patients in several different ways, interfering in their activities of daily living and autonomy. The present study aimed to review the literature on chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and its treatment or other possible interventions. The findings reveal that chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a common condition that affects patients undergoing treatment with some specific drugs. Besides, several different substances have been used to treat […]

The importance of HDL-C and CRP in cardiovascular risk evaluation in longevous elderly individuals

Renato Laks, Lara Miguel Quirino Araújo, Clineu de Mello Almada Filho, Maysa Seabra Cendoroglo

DOI: 10.1590/s1679-45082011rw1953

ABSTRACTThe association between total mortality, lipoproteinS, and inflammatory markers, and their implications with aging and longevity are often controversial. Among the most often studied markers are low HDL cholesterol and high C-reactive protein. Particularly in octogenarians, it is expected that the impact of the inclusion of HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein will improve the stratification of absolute cardiovascular risk. In the present study, we performed a literature review in PubMed about the relation between HDL cholesterol, inflammation and longevity. Applying […]

Immunomodulatory effect of mesenchymal stem cells

Luciana Cavalheiro Marti, Andreza Alice Feitosa Ribeiro, Nelson Hamerschlak

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082011RW1843

ABSTRACT Mesenchymal stem cells represent an adult population of nonhematopoietic cells, which can differentiate into a variety of cell types such as osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and myocytes. They display immunomodulatory properties that have led to the consideration of their use for the inhibition of immune responses. In this context, mesenchymal stem cells efficiently inhibit maturation, cytokine production, and the T cell stimulatory capacity of dendritic cells. They also can impair proliferation, cytokine secretion, and cytotoxic potential of T lymphocytes. Moreover, […]

Current management of severe acquired aplastic anemia

Phillip Scheinberg

DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082011RW2156

ABSTRACT Overall survival in severe aplastic anemia has markedly improved in the past four decades due to advances in stem cell transplantation, immunosuppressive therapies and supportive care. Horse anti-thymocyte globulin plus cyclosporine is the standard immunosuppressive regimen in severe aplastic anemia, and often employed as initial therapy as most are not candidates for a matched related stem cell transplantation. With this regimen, hematologic response can be achieved in 60 to 70% of cases, but relapse is observed in 30 to […]

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